Attributes Of the Letters
Salam alaikum wa rahmatu Allahi wa BarakatuHu.
Peace be upon the followers of guidance.
After studying and being solid on the emmision points of the letters,
the next step is to know how to pronounce them from these points. They
have attributes that should not be exceeded or diminished. The attributes
of the letters, called صفات الحروف , "siffatul huruf", are how to pronounce them clearly whether loudly or otherwise.
Linguistically صفات "siffat" means the attribute or characteristic of something like "white".
In terminology, صفات "siffat" means how to pronounce a letter from its
emmision point,like Hums الهمس (aired) , Jahr الجهر (nonaired), Rikhawat الرخاوة (weak), Shiddat الشدة (strong), and so on.
NUMBER OF ATTRIBUTES:
The ulema have differed on the total number of attributes:
1. Seventeen , as stated by Imam ibn Aljazary.
2. Forty-Four, by Abu Muhammed Makki bin Abi Talib Qaisi passed 437 H.
3. Forteen, like AlBurqiya.
The attributes are of two types, those that have opposites
and those that do not have opposites.
ATTRIBUTES WITH OPPOSITES:
There are 11 attributes that have opposites, in 5 subsections. Each letter must have one of these attributes in each section. They are:
1. Hums الهمس - when pronounced you can feel air coming out of your mouth.
1. Jahr الجهر - No air coming out when pronounced.
2. Shiddat الشدة - strong, sound stops with force.
2. Tawasat التوسط - middle, sound is between continual resonation and stopping with force.
2. Rikhawat الرخاوة - weak, sound continues to resonate and does not stop with force.
3. Istaala الاستعلاء - thick letter, keep the jaw more open and lips close together.
3. Istifal الاستفال - thin letter, keep the jaw more closed and lips apart.
4. Itbaq الإطباق - keep the tongue close to the roof of the mouth.
4. Infitah الانفتاح - keep the tongue away from the roof of the mouth.
5. Ismaat الإصمات - Not of the "super" arabic letters.
5. Idhlaq الإذلاق - Of the "super" arabic letters.
ATTRIBUTES WITHOUT OPPOSITES:
There are other attributes that are on some of the letters.
A. AsSafeer الصفير - Whistling letter.
B. qalqala القلقلة - resonated letter.
C. leen اللين - Leen letter.
D. AlInhiraf الانحراف - Sliding letter.
E. AlTaqreer التكرير - Repeating letter.
F. Atafashee التفشي - Spreading letter.
G. Alistatala الاستطالة - Extension letter.
H. Alkhafaa الخفاء - hiding letter
I. Alghunna الغنة - nasal letter